What does cyber security do?


What does cyber security do?

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computer systems, networks, and sensitive information from unauthorized access, theft, and damage. The need for cybersecurity has grown significantly in recent years due to the increasing amount of sensitive information being stored and transmitted digitally, as well as the rising number of cyber threats and attacks.

Cybersecurity professionals use a range of tools and techniques to safeguard computer systems and networks from cyber threats, such as viruses, malware, and phishing attacks. These techniques include:

Authentication and Access Control: This involves verifying the identity of users attempting to access a system or network, and granting them appropriate access privileges based on their role or level of clearance. Authentication mechanisms can include passwords, biometrics, and multi-factor authentication.

Encryption: Encryption is the process of encoding data in a way that makes it unreadable to unauthorized users. This is typically done using cryptographic algorithms and keys.

Firewalls: Firewalls are hardware or software-based security systems that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic. They can be configured to block traffic from known malicious sources, or to allow traffic only from trusted sources.

Intrusion Detection and Prevention: Intrusion detection and prevention systems are used to monitor networks for suspicious activity, such as unauthorized access attempts or malware infections. These systems can be configured to automatically block or quarantine threats.

Patch Management: Regularly updating software and operating systems with the latest security patches can help prevent vulnerabilities from being exploited by attackers.

Incident Response: In the event of a cyber attack, an incident response team can be called upon to investigate the incident, contain the damage, and prevent it from happening again in the future.

Cybersecurity professionals must also stay up-to-date with the latest trends and threats in the industry, and continually evaluate and improve security measures to ensure that systems and networks remain secure.

The Importance of Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is critically important in today’s digital age, where virtually every aspect of our lives is connected to the internet. Businesses, governments, and individuals all rely on computer systems and networks to store and transmit sensitive information, and a breach of this information can have serious consequences.

For businesses, a cyber attack can result in lost revenue, damage to reputation, and legal liabilities. In some cases, a cyber attack can even result in the closure of a business. Governments also rely heavily on computer systems and networks to store and transmit sensitive information, and a cyber attack on government systems can result in a breach of national security.

Individuals are also at risk of cyber attacks, such as identity theft and financial fraud. Personal information, such as credit card numbers and social security numbers, can be stolen and used for illegal activities.

Types of Cyber Threats

There are many different types of cyber threats that cybersecurity professionals must protect against, including:

Malware: Malware is a type of software that is designed to infiltrate a computer system and cause damage. This can include viruses, Trojans, and ransomware.

Phishing: Phishing is a type of social engineering attack that involves tricking users into divulging sensitive information, such as login credentials or credit card numbers.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): DDoS attacks involve overwhelming a system or network with traffic in order to make it unavailable to users.

Man-in-the-middle (MITM) Attacks: MITM attacks involve intercepting communication between two parties in order to eavesdrop or manipulate the communication.

Password Attacks: Password attacks involve attempting to gain access to a system or network by guessing or cracking passwords.

Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs): APTs are sophisticated attacks that are typically carried out by nation-states or other highly skilled hackers. These attacks can involve a combination of social engineering, malware, and other techniques to gain access to sensitive information or systems. APTs are typically targeted attacks that are designed to remain undetected for long periods of time, allowing the attackers to gather as much information as possible before being discovered.

APTs can be particularly dangerous because they are often customized to target specific organizations or individuals, and may be designed to exploit specific vulnerabilities that are unique to their targets. They may also involve multiple stages of attack, with each stage designed to evade detection and increase the attacker’s access and control over the target system.

Protecting Against Cyber Threats

Protecting against cyber threats requires a multi-layered approach that involves both technical and human-based defenses. Some best practices for protecting against cyber threats include:

Regularly updating software and operating systems with the latest security patches.

Implementing strong passwords and multi-factor authentication to protect against unauthorized access.

Regularly backing up important data and information to prevent loss in the event of a cyber attack.

Educating employees and users about common cyber threats, such as phishing scams, and how to avoid them.

Implementing access controls and monitoring systems to detect and prevent unauthorized access.

Regularly testing and evaluating security measures to identify and address vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by attackers.


In conclusion, cyber security is a critical component of modern-day computing and is essential for protecting computer systems, networks, and sensitive information from cyber threats. Cybersecurity professionals use a range of techniques and tools, such as authentication and access control, encryption, firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention, patch management, and incident response to safeguard against cyber threats.

The importance of cybersecurity cannot be overstated, as cyber attacks can result in significant financial losses, damage to reputation, and legal liabilities. Cybersecurity professionals must remain vigilant and continually evaluate and improve security measures to stay ahead of evolving cyber threats. By implementing best practices and staying up-to-date with the latest trends and threats in the industry, organizations and individuals can help ensure that their systems and data remain secure.